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8.18 Airworthiness and Equipment

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Registration

The purpose of issuing a certificate of airworthiness to an aircraft is to maintain standards of safety for all types of aircraft through the registration of aircraft. A certificate of registration will be issued provided the aircraft complies with the safety rules. A certificate of registration is issued by CASA for individual aircraft to operate in categories, provided it complies with the appropriate requirements.

The categories and there authorized purposes are listed in the CAO which include:

  • Acrobatic
  • Agricultural
  • Amateur Built
  • Commuter
  • Developmental
  • Normal
  • Special
  • Transport
  • Utility

CASA has the function of conducting safety regulation in accordance with the Civil Aviation Act 1988.

Civil Aviation Act 18

Permissions must be based on safety matters.

(1) If a person applies to CASA for a permission, CASA must give the permission if CASA is satisfied that the person has complied with, or is capable of complying with, the safety rules.

Civil Aviation Act 20AA

(1) A person must not fly an aircraft within Australian territory if:

(a) the aircraft is not registered under the regulations; and

(b) the aircraft is, under this Act or those regulations, required to be registered under those regulations.

(1A) Flying without a certificate of airworthiness

(3) An owner, operator, hirer (other than the Crown) or pilot of an Australian aircraft must not commence a flight in the aircraft, or permit a flight in the aircraft to commence, if:

(a) there is no certificate of airworthiness under the regulations in force in respect of the aircraft; and

(b) the regulations do not authorise the flight without the certificate.

Equipment

The pilot in command of an aircraft is responsible to ensure the aircraft they are operating is fitted with the appropriate functioning instruments and equipment.

CAR 233

Responsibility of pilot in command before flight

(1) The pilot in command of an aircraft must not commence a flight if he or she has not received evidence, and taken such action as is necessary to ensure, that:

(a) the instruments and equipment required for the particular type of operation to be undertaken are installed in the aircraft and are functioning properly;

The appropriate instruments and equipment is specified in the CAR.

CAR 174A

Equipment of aircraft for V.F.R. flight

(1) CASA may issue instructions specifying:

(a) the radio communication systems; or radio communication system means equipment is capable of maintaining two-way voice communication through the aeronautical mobile radio service.

(b) the radio navigation systems; or radio navigation system means equipment carried on, or installed in, an aircraft for the purpose of navigating the aircraft by reference to the signals emitted by a radio navigation aid.

(c) the secondary surveillance radar transponder equipment; that must be carried on, or installed in, an aircraft before it undertakes a V.F.R. flight. secondary surveillance radar transponder means equipment that:

(a) is carried on, or installed in, an aircraft; and

(b) can respond to radio signals transmitted to the aircraft by ground radar and relay information about the aircraft’s operations including the following:

(i) the identity of the aircraft;

(ii) the position of the aircraft;

(iii) the altitude of the aircraft.

(1A) Subject to subregulation (3), the pilot in command of an aircraft must not fly the aircraft under the V.F.R. if the aircraft is not equipped with:

(a) suitable flight instruments as directed by CASA; and

(b) the equipment specified in instructions issued under subregulation (1) in relation to the aircraft.

The AIP specifies the radio communication systems required to be utilised in an aircraft under various conditions.

Radio Communication Systems

AIP GEN 1.5

1.1 Aircraft must be equipped with radio communications systems capable of continuous communication according to the flight classification and airspace category. The systems specified in the following table are the minimum required for the particular operation and except where otherwise indicated must be of a type approved by the CASA, properly installed in the aircraft and serviceable on the departure of the flight.

1.2 VHF communications systems must be capable of communication on all VHF frequencies required to meet the reporting and broadcast requirements of ENR 1.1 para 20.1.

1.3 HF communications systems must be fitted with frequencies appropriate to the area of operation as specified in AIP ERSA. The frequencies fitted must be sufficient to enable continuous communication with ATS units for the planned duration of the flight or while operating within the specified area, taking into account the expected radio propagation conditions during the period of operation.

1.4 At least one item of the required radio equipment must be capable of maintaining continuous communication with ATS at all stages of flight. The term “all stages of flight” includes ground operations at the aerodromes of departure and arrival, and cruising levels that could be required for any emergency and/or abnormal operation en route. However, where continuous communication using VHF can be maintained for normal operations, but cannot be guaranteed in the event of emergency and/or abnormal operations en-route, SATCOM telephone may be used instead of HF provided the Operator has applied to CASA in writing, and been given specific approval, documenting that all relevant maintenance, operational and logistic aspects have been considered and has or will be implemented, including that:

a. routes are selected so that the anticipated period beyond VHF coverage, in the even of emergency and/or abnormal operation, does not exceed 30 minutes;

b. appropriate pre-flight checks have been incorporated in the aircrew check list and forms part of the company's operating procedures;

c. the system is equipped with an external antenna and operated via a common VHF headset/microphone;

d. SATCOM telephone transmissions will be recorded by the Cockpit Voice Recorder;

e. the system is inter-operable with existing NAV systems;

f. power can be removed from the system;

g. defect reports will be issued and dispatched as for other COM systems; and

h. the system has been incorporated in the Minimum Equipment List.

Notes: SATCOM telephone contact procedures are described in the AIP at GEN 3.4 paragraph 3.6.3. Additionally, to facilitate ATC initiated calls to aircraft during contingencies, the phone number of the aircraft may be included in Field 18 of the flight plan. Any pre-flight radio check of the SATCOM telephone should be made to the pilot's company to avoid congesting ATC lines.

1.5 An Australian Communications and Media Authority approved and licensed hand‐held VHF radio may be used by pilots of:

a. VFR PVT and AWK aeroplanes with a MTOW not exceeding:

(1) in the case of an aeroplane other than a seaplane - 544KG;

(2) in the case of a seaplane with a single seat - 579KG;

(3) in the case of a seaplane with two seats - 614KG; and

b. gliders; and

c. balloons

Additionally, approved hand-held radios may be used by pilots of these aircraft when operating in Class G. Pilots are responsible for ensuring that the equipment is able to be operated without adversely affecting the safety of the aircraft. The location of the antenna must be such that airframe shielding does not prevent two-way communication with all aircraft operating on the CTAF. Where the radio is not connected to the aircraft primary power supply, there must be ready access to backup power.

1.6 Planning Chart Australia (AUS PCA) shows the areas in which an aircraft, flying at the altitudes indicated, could be expected to maintain continuous VHF communications with an ATS unit.

1.7 RPT, CHTR and AWK aircraft are exempt from the requirement to carry HF radio for communication with ATS when: radio contact can be maintained with an appropriately trained company representative able to communicate by telephone with ATS, and the requirements of ENR 1.1 para 40.1 are satisfied.

1.8 Private aircraft without radio may be admitted to CTRs for maintenance subject to the approval of the appropriate ATC unit. Pilots must comply with any conditions contained in the approval.

Life Jackets

CAO 5

5.1.1 Aircraft shall be equipped with 1 life jacket for each occupant when the aircraft is over water and at a distance from land:

(a) in the case of a single engine aircraft — greater than that which would allow the aircraft to reach land with the engine inoperative; and

(b) in the case of multi-engine aircraft — greater than 50 miles.

Note 1: For the purposes of this paragraph, land shall mean land suitable for an emergency landing.

Note 2: Except as specified in paragraph 5.1.2 below, the provisions of this paragraph need not apply to land aircraft departing from or landing at an aerodrome in accordance with a normal navigational procedure for departing from or landing at that aerodrome.

5.1.2 Land aircraft that carry passengers and are engaged in:

(a) regular public transport operations; or

(b) charter operations;

shall be equipped with a life jacket or flotation device for each occupant on all flights where the take-off or approach path is so disposed over water that in the event of a mishap occurring during the departure or the arrival it is reasonably possible that the aircraft would be forced to land onto water.

5.1.3 Where required by paragraph 5.1.1 or paragraph 5.1.2, a life jacket or individual flotation device shall be stowed at or immediately adjacent to each seat. In addition, sufficient additional life jackets or individual flotation devices shall be carried in easily accessible positions for use by infants or children for whom a life jacket or individual flotation device is not available at or adjacent to their seated position.

5.1.4 Amphibious aircraft when operating on water, helicopters equipped with fixed flotation equipment when operating on water, and all seaplanes and flying boats on all flights shall be equipped with:

(a) 1 life jacket for each occupant; and

(b) an additional number of life jackets (equal to at least one-fifth of the total number of occupants) in a readily accessible position near the exits.

5.1.5 Life jackets shall be so stowed in the aircraft that 1 life jacket is readily accessible to each occupant and, in the case of passengers, within easy reach of their seats.

5.1.6 Life jackets shall comply with the standards specified in section 103.13 and flotation devices shall comply with the FAA requirements TSO C72b.

5.1.7 Where life jackets are required to be carried in accordance with subparagraph 5.1.1 (a) each occupant shall wear a life jacket during flight over water. However, occupants of aeroplanes need not wear life jackets during flight above 2 000 feet above the water.

5.1.8 Where life jackets are required to be carried in accordance with paragraph 5.1.4 each occupant of a single engine aircraft shall wear a life jacket during flight over water when the aircraft is operated beyond gliding distance from land or water, as appropriate, suitable for an emergency landing. However, occupants need not wear life jackets when the aircraft is taking-off or landing at an aerodrome in accordance with a normal navigational procedure for departing from or arriving at that aerodrome, and occupants of aeroplanes need not wear life jackets during flight above 2 000 feet above the water.

5.1.9 Notwithstanding paragraph 5.1.8 above each occupant of a helicopter operating to or from an off-shore landing site located on a fixed platform or vessel shall wear a life jacket during the entire flight over water regardless of the class of operation or the one-engine-inoperative performance capability of the helicopter.

Life Rafts

CAO 5.2

5.2.1 An aircraft that is flown over water at a distance from land greater than the permitted distance must carry, as part of its emergency and lifesaving equipment, sufficient life rafts to provide a place in a life raft for each person on board the aircraft.

5.2.1.1 For the purposes of paragraph 5.2.1, the permitted distance is:

(a) in the case of an aircraft that has:

(i) 4 engines; or

(ii) 3 turbine engines; or

(iii) 2 turbine engines and is engaged in an extended range operation to which section 20.7.1B applies; a distance equal to 120 minutes at normal cruising speed, or 400 miles, whichever is the less; or

(b) in any other case — a distance equal to 30 minutes at normal cruising speed, or 100 miles, whichever is the less.

5.2.2 Notwithstanding the requirements of paragraph 5.2.1, CASA may require the carriage of life rafts on such other overwater flights as CASA considers necessary.

5.2.3 Life rafts carried in accordance with paragraph 5.2.1 shall be in addition to life jackets carried in accordance with paragraphs 5.1.1 and 5.1.2.

5.2.4 Life rafts carried in accordance with this section shall be stowed so as to be readily accessible in the event of a ditching without appreciable time for preparatory procedures. When life rafts are stowed in compartments or containers, such compartments or containers shall be appropriately and conspicuously marked. Where life raft stowages have to be installed in aircraft to meet the requirements of this section, such stowages shall comply with the requirements of Part 101 appropriate to the certification of the aircraft concerned.

5.2.5 Life rafts shall comply with the standards specified in section 103.15.

Helicopter Flotation Systems

CAO 5.3

5.3.1 A single engine helicopter engaged in passenger carrying charter operations shall be equipped with an approved flotation system whenever the helicopter is operated beyond autorotative gliding distance from land. However, when following a helicopter access lane prescribed in AIP-ERSA, or when departing from or landing at a helicopter landing site in accordance with a normal navigational procedure for departing from or landing at that site, an approved flotation system is not required.

5.3.2 A single engine helicopter engaged in regular public transport operations shall be equipped with an approved flotation system whenever the helicopter is operated beyond autorotative gliding distance from land.

5.3.3 A multi-engine helicopter engaged in passenger carrying charter or regular public transport operations over water and which is not operated in accordance with one-engine-inoperative accountability procedures shall be equipped with an approved flotation system.

Signalling

CAO 6

6.1 Aircraft on flights where the carriage of life rafts is required by paragraph 5.2.1, or on such other overwater flights as CASA specifies, shall carry approved types of the following signalling equipment:

(a) 1 emergency locator transmitter when 1 life raft is carried and at least 2 transmitters when more than 1 raft is carried. The transmitters shall operate on frequencies of 121.5 MHz and 243 MHz, shall be an approved emergency locator transmitter under regulation 252A of the Regulations and shall be stowed so as to facilitate their ready use in an emergency;

(b) a supply of pyrotechnic distress signals.

6.2 Single engine aircraft on flights over water, which are not equipped with radio communication equipment or are not capable of continuous air-ground communication and which are not required to carry a life raft by paragraph 5.2.1 shall be required to carry an emergency locator transmitter. The transmitters shall operate on frequencies 121.5 MHz and 243 MHz, shall be an approved emergency locator transmitter under regulation 252A of the Regulations and shall be stowed so as to facilitate its ready use in an emergency.

Survival Equipment

CAO 7

7.1 An aircraft shall carry survival equipment for sustaining life appropriate to the area being overflown on the following flights:

(a) where the carriage of life rafts are required by paragraphs 5.2.1 and 5.2.2;

(b) during operations within or through the remote areas specified in Appendix III;

(c) on such other flights as may be directed by CASA.

Note 1: Flight through corridors shall be made within sight of the highway concerned but in no case more than five miles therefrom.

Note 2: Australian administered islands adjacent to the Remote Area between Talgarno and Cairns are part of the Designated Remote Area.

Note 3: Mainland within 50 n.m. of Darwin excluded from Designated Remote Area.

Each aircraft has a maintenance schedule approved by CASA that requires the aircraft to be regularly inspected by a licensed aircraft maintenance engineer (LAME). Refer to CAAP 43-1(1).

Typical maintenance schedule consist of routine inspection and maintenance recorded in logbooks.

Aircraft Log Books

CAO 3

3.1 For the purposes of subregulation 50A (2) of the Regulations, CASA’s instructions in relation to aircraft log books are set out in paragraphs 3.2.

3.2 An aircraft log book must:

(a) identify the aircraft and the type and model of engine and propeller fitted to the aircraft and must state whether the aircraft is equipped for I.F.R. operations, V.F.R. (Day) operations or V.F.R. (Night) operations; and

(b) identify the aircraft’s maintenance program (including details of maintenance release inspections); and

(c) identify any approved variations or exemptions to the aircraft’s maintenance schedules; and

(d) have provision for the recording and certification of maintenance carried out on the aircraft; and

(e) have provision for the recording and certification of maintenance carried out on the aircraft’s engine and, if applicable, the propeller; and

(f) contain a record of when the engine and, if applicable, the propeller, was installed or removed and a record of the date and aircraft time-in-service of the installation or removal; and

(g) contain a record of when any time-lifed components were installed or removed, including a record of the date and aircraft time-in-service of the installation or removal; and

(h) contain a record of compliance with all applicable airworthiness directives, including a record of the date and time-in-service of the compliance; and

(i) contain a summary of any changes to the empty weight of the aircraft; and

(j) have all log book sections incorporating certification pages bound and sequentially numbered.

Maintenance Release

On completion of scheduled maintenance a maintenance release is issued for that aircraft. It is the pilots’ responsibility to inspect an aircraft before and after every flight. They must enter any defects or unserviceability on the maintenance release and identify from the maintenance release any part relating to expirees or items of unserviceability which are outstanding that renders the aircraft not airworthy.

Maintenance Release Part 1

Make sure that the maintenance release is current. Check expiry date and total time in service.

Check that the operational category and the class of operation are appropriate to your intended operation. Note: Aircraft must be classified in accordance with the type of operations in which it is being employed at any time.

This section lists any maintenance which will become due prior to the expiration of the maintenance release. Before flight ensure that no maintenance is due and that none will fall due during the intended flight operation.

If maintenance is due you must not fly the aircraft (CAR 133) and the maintenance release ceases to be in force (CAR 47), until the completion of that maintenance has been certified. Further, if you think that someone is likely to fly the aircraft before the maintenance is carried out, then make an endorsement in part 2 setting out the details and stating that the aircraft is UN-AIRWORTHY (CAR 47).

CAR 133

Conditions to be met before Australian aircraft may fly;

(1) Subject to regulation 317 and regulation 21.197 of CASR, the pilot in command of an Australian aircraft must not commence a flight if each of the following requirements is not satisfied:

(a) the aircraft has a nationality mark and a registration mark painted on, or affixed to, it in accordance with Part 45 of CASR;

(c) the flight is not in contravention of any condition that:

(i) is set out or referred to in the maintenance release or in any other document approved for use as an alternative to the maintenance release for the purposes of regulation 49, or subregulation 43 (10); or

(ii) is applicable to the maintenance release by virtue of a direction given under regulation 44;

(d) any maintenance that is required to be carried out before the commencement of the flight, or that will be required to be carried out before the expiration of the flight, to comply with any requirement or condition imposed under these Regulations with respect to the aircraft has been certified, in accordance with regulation 42ZE or 42ZN, to have been completed;

(e) the aircraft complies with these Regulations in respect of the number and description of, and the holding of licences and ratings by, the operating crew.

(2) Paragraph (1) (d) does not apply to any maintenance that was required to be carried out before:

(a) the issue of the maintenance release in force, or the last maintenance release that was in force, for the aircraft; or

(b) if the maintenance release was not a maintenance release issued because of paragraph 43 (7) (a)—the issue of the last maintenance release for the aircraft issued because of that paragraph.

(3) An offence against subregulation (1) is an offence of strict liability.

CAR 47

Maintenance release to cease to be in force

(1) If:

(aa) the holder of the certificate of registration for; or

(ab) the operator of; or

(ac) a flight crew member of; or

(ad) an authorised person engaged (whether as an employee or on his or her own behalf) in the maintenance of; an aircraft in respect of which a maintenance release is in force becomes aware:

(a) that:

(i) a requirement or condition imposed under these Regulations in respect of the maintenance of the aircraft has not been complied with;

(ii) the aircraft has suffered major damage or has developed a major defect, other than damage or a defect that is a permissible unserviceability;

(iii) abnormal flight or ground loads have been imposed on the aircraft; or

(iv) maintenance carried out on the aircraft may have adversely affected, to such an extent as to affect the safety of the aircraft, the flight characteristics of the aircraft or the operating characteristics of any aircraft component, or any system of aircraft components, installed in the aircraft; and

(b) that there is a likelihood that the aircraft will be flown before:

(i) the requirement or condition referred to in subparagraph (a) (i) has been complied with;

(ii) the damage or defect referred to in subparagraph (a) (ii) has been remedied;

(iii) any damage caused by the imposition of the abnormal loads referred to in subparagraph (a) (iii) has been remedied; or

(iv) the characteristics referred to in subparagraph (a) (iv) have been corrected; as the case may be; he or she shall, subject to subregulation (2), enter on the maintenance release, or other document approved for use as an alternative to the maintenance release for the purposes of this subregulation, an endorsement signed by him or her setting out the facts of the situation and stating that the aircraft is unairworthy, and thereupon the maintenance release ceases to be in force.

(2) A person is not required under subregulation (1) to enter an endorsement on a maintenance release or other document approved for use as an alternative to a maintenance release if:

(a) the maintenance release was issued by virtue of paragraph 43 (7) (b); and

(b) the person considers that the ground for entering the endorsement:

(i) existed at the time when the maintenance release was issued; and

(ii) was known to the person who issued the maintenance release or to a responsible employee of that person.

(3) If:

(a) the holder of the certificate of registration for; or

(b) the operator of; or

(c) the pilot in command of; or

(d) an authorised person engaged (whether as an employee or on his or her own behalf) in the maintenance of; an aircraft in respect of which a maintenance release is in force becomes aware that the certificate of airworthiness in respect of the aircraft has been suspended or cancelled, he or she shall enter on the maintenance release an endorsement signed by him or her setting out the facts of the situation and stating that the aircraft is unairworthy, and thereupon the maintenance release ceases to be in force.

(4) Where:

(a) an authorised person (whether acting as an employee or on his or her own behalf) carries out maintenance on an aircraft in pursuance of an authorisation under subregulation 35 (3), or subregulation 36 (3) with a view to the aircraft being tested; and

(b) there is in force in respect of the aircraft a maintenance release issued by virtue of paragraph 43 (7) (a); the authorised person shall enter on the maintenance release an endorsement signed by him or her setting out that he or she has carried out maintenance authorised under the relevant provision referred to in paragraph (a) and that the aircraft requires testing, and thereupon the maintenance release ceases to be in force.

(5) A maintenance release for an aircraft stops being in force when a maintenance release inspection of the aircraft begins.

(6) In this regulation maintenance release inspection means an inspection carried out on an aircraft for the purpose of determining whether a maintenance release for the aircraft should be issued.

(7) An offence against subregulation (4) is an offence of strict liability.

Maintenance Release Part 2

Check any endorsements to assess their effect on your intended operation and make sure the maintenance release is in force.

If, at any time, you become aware of damage or a defect, make an endorsement listing the appropriate details and sign it (CARs 50 & 248). Should the defect or damage be major, include the words "the aircraft is UNAIRWORTHY" with your endorsement (CAR 47).

Abnormal flight or ground loads, such as a heavy landing, must also be reported in this manner (CAR 47).

CAR 50

Defects and major damage to be endorsed on maintenance release

(1) This regulation applies to each of the following persons:

(a) the holder of the certificate of registration for an Australian aircraft;

(b) the operator of an Australian aircraft;

(c) a flight crew member of an Australian aircraft.

(2) If:

(a) there is a defect in the aircraft; or

(b) the aircraft has suffered major damage; a person mentioned in subregulation (1), who becomes aware of the defect or damage, must endorse the maintenance release of the aircraft or other document approved for use as an alternative for the purposes of this regulation, setting out the particulars of the defect or damage, as the case may be, and sign the endorsement.

CAR 248

Reporting of defects

(1) At the termination of each flight, or in any urgent case, during the currency of the flight, the pilot in command shall report, in the manner and to the persons specified by CASA, all defects in the aircraft, aerodromes, air routes, air route facilities or airway facilities which have come to the pilot’s notice.

(1A) An offence against subregulation (1) is an offence of strict liability.

(2) Where a defect in the aircraft is reported in accordance with subregulation (1), the operator of the aircraft shall take such action in relation thereto as is required under these Regulations.

Maintenance Release Part 3

If the Daily Inspection is part of approved pilot maintenance, then the pilot must certify for its completion whenever he/she carries out the daily inspection (CAR 42ZE).

Record aircraft time-in-service for each day's flying and calculate the progressive total.

CAR 42ZE

Certification of completion of maintenance on aircraft in Australian territory

(1) A person who carries out maintenance on an Australian aircraft in Australian territory must ensure that completion of the maintenance is certified in accordance with:

(a) if the person has an approved system of certification of completion of maintenance—that system; or

(b) if paragraph (a) does not apply—the CASA system of certification of completion of maintenance.

(2) For the purposes of this regulation, maintenance performed by employees of an employer who is the holder of a certificate of approval, an aircraft maintenance engineer licence or an airworthiness authority is to be taken to be carried out by the employer and not by the employees.

CAR 43B

Time-in-service to be recorded on maintenance release

(1) On the completion of flying operations on each day that an aircraft is flown, the owner, operator or pilot in command must record on the maintenance release the total time-in-service of the aircraft on the day.

Maintenance

CAAP 42B-1 and CAR Schedule 8

1 - General

1.1 This publication details the maintenance activities which may be performed by the pilot, other than a student pilot, of class B aircraft. This schedule does not repeat, nor take the place of, the daily inspection schedule, contained in the CAA Maintenance Schedule or the manufacturer's maintenance manual.

1.2 This maintenance may also be performed by the holder of an AME licence in the Airframe or Engine category, though not necessarily rated for that particular aircraft type or group.

1.3 Upon completion of maintenance, the pilot is responsible as the person performing that maintenance to record all relevant details and make the appropriate certifications, as required by regulation 42ZE of the CARs, in the aircraft's log book or, if appropriate, on the maintenance release.

1.4 Pilots are responsible for ensuring they are familiar with, and are able to satisfactorily comply with, any manufacturer's instructions regarding the Date: 1 March 1992 No: 42zc-1(0) subject: approved pilot maintenance for class b aircraft CAAP 42zc-1(0) Approved pilot maintenance for class B aircraft -2- maintenance before undertaking any of the tasks identified. Guidance should be sought from experienced qualified maintenance personnel on correct aircraft maintenance practices and procedures.

2 - Maintenance Activities

2.1 The following activities, which do not involve the dismantling of or interference with any structure, operating system or the use of specialised tooling, comprise approved pilot maintenance:

(1) Removal and installation of landing gear wheels, tyres and repair of pneumatic tubes.

(2) Servicing of landing gear wheel bearings, such as cleaning and greasing.

(3) Replacement of defective safety wiring or split pins, excluding those in control systems.

(4) Any lubrication not requiring disassembly other than removal of non-structural cover plates, cowlings and fairings.

(5) The making of simple fabric repairs not including lacing or rib stitching or the removal of structural parts or control surfaces.

(6) Replenishment of hydraulic fluid in hydraulic reservoirs.

(7) Repairs to upholstery and decorative furnishings of the cabin or cockpit interior.

(8) Replacement of side windows in unpressurised aircraft.

(9) Replacement of seats when it does not involve disassembly of any primary structure and is subject to the approved loading system.

(10) Replacement of seat belts and harnesses.

(11) Replacement of bulbs, reflectors, glasses, lenses or lights.

(12) Replacement of any cowling not requiring removal of the propeller or disconnecting of controls.

(13) Replacement or cleaning of spark plugs and setting of their gaps.

(14) Replacement of batteries.

(15) Changing of engine oil and fuel, oil and air filters.

(16) Removal and replacement of glider tow hooks.

(17) Removal and replacement of role equipment used for agricultural operations.

(18) Replacement of placards and markings.

(19) Application of preservative or protective materials to components where no disassembly of primary structure or operating systems is involved such as seaplane preservation (paralketone to control cables, etc.), anti-corrosive paint to structures or components where such coating is not prohibited or is contrary to good practice.

(20) Removal and refitting of doors, where no disassembly of primary structure or operating system is involved, of aircraft that have a flight manual supplement that is approved for operations without that door.

(21) Daily Inspections.

(22) The second independent inspection of flying controls.

(23) On VFR aircraft only:

(i) replacement of wire aerials by components of identical electrical design;

(ii) re-termination of radio system plugs, sockets or disconnects;

(iii) adjustment of contacts in microphone and headset jacks;

(iv) replacement of radio system switches, relays and similar minor components with identical components.

2.2 If you are using tooling that requires calibration, it is your responsibility to ensure that the tooling is within its calibration tolerance and test period

Daily Inspections

CAR Schedule 5

Part 1—Daily Inspection

1.1 An inspection (in this Part called a daily inspection) must be carried out on the aircraft before the aircraft’s first flight on each day on which the aircraft is flown.

1.2 A daily inspection must consist of the making of such of the checks set out in the table at the end of this Part as are applicable to the aircraft. Table of Checks Included In a Daily Inspection

Section 1—General

(1) Check that the ignition switches are off, the mixture control is lean or cut off, the throttle is closed and the fuel selector is on.

(2) Check that the propeller blades are free from cracks, bends and detrimental nicks, that the propeller spinner is secure and free from cracks, that there is no evidence of oil or grease leakage from the propeller hub or actuating cylinder and that the propeller hub, where visible, has no evidence of any defect which would prevent safe operation.

(3) Check that the induction system and all cooling air inlets are free from obstruction.

(4) Check that the engine, where visible, has no fuel or oil leaks and that the exhaust system is secure and free from cracks.

(5) Check that the oil quantity is within the limits specified by the manufacturer for safe operation and that the oil filler cap, dipstick and inspection panels are secure.

(6) Check that the engine cowlings and cowl flaps are secure.

(7) Check that the landing gear tyres are free from cuts or other damage, have no plies exposed and, by visual inspection, are adequately inflated.

(8) Check that the landing gear oleo extensions are within normal static limits and that the landing gear doors are secure.

(9) Check that the wing and fuselage surfaces are free from damage and that the inspection panels, flight control surfaces and flight control devices are secure.

(10) Check that the interplane and centre section struts are free from damage and that the bracing wires are of the correct tension.

(11) Check that the pitot heads and static ports are free from obstruction and that the pitot cover is removed or is free to operate.

(12) Check that the fuel tank filler caps, chains, vents and associated access panels are secure and free from damage.

(13) Check that the empennage surfaces are free from damage and that the control surfaces control cables and control rods, where visible, are secure.

(14) Check that the canard surfaces are free from damage and that the control surfaces, control cables and control rods, where visible, are secure.

(15) Check that the flight controls, the trim systems and the high lift devices operable from the ground have full and free movement in the correct sense.

(16) Check that the radios and antennae are secure and that where visible, radio units and interwiring are secure.

(17) Check that the drain holes are free from obstruction.

(18) Check that there is no snow, frost or ice on the wings, tail surfaces, canards, propeller or windscreen.

(19) Check that each tank sump and fuel filter is free from water and foreign matter by draining a suitable quantity of fuel into a clean transparent container.

(20) Check that the windscreen is clean and free from damage.

(21) Check that the instruments are free from damage, legible and secure.

(22) Check that the seat belts, buckles and inertia reels are free from damage, secure and functioning correctly.

Section 2—Additional items for agricultural aeroplanes

(1) Check that the agricultural equipment is secure.

(2) Check that the dump and fan brake mechanisms are free from obstructions and operate correctly.

Section 3—Additional items for seaplanes

(1) Check that the hull and floats are free from damage, corrosion and water accumulation.

(2) Check that the float attachment struts, bracing wires and attachment fittings are secure and free from damage and corrosion.

(3) Check that the water rudder and its attachments are secure and free from damage and corrosion and that the water rudder has full, free and correct travel.