Table of Contents.
7.1 Form of the Earth
Understand the following items and their relationship to the position of the earth, time differences and distances and direction:
- The shape and rotation of the earth
- Latitude, longitude
- Meridians of longitude, parallels of latitude
- Equator, Greenwich meridian
- Great circles, small circles, rhumb lines
- Difference between true and magnetic north
- Terrestrial magnetism, magnetic variation and the change in variation with time
- Distance on the earth - relationship between minute of latitude and a nautical mile
Explain the terms UTC, Local Mean Time, Local (standard) Time, Local summer time.
Extract (within +/-5 min) the beginning and end of civil twilight from AIP daylight and darkness graphs.
Carry out conversion between LMT, UTC, Local (standard) times including local summer time.
List factors which may cause daylight to end earlier than the time extracted from darkness graphs.
Describe the effect of the earth’s rotation and revolution around the sun on the:
- Beginning and end of daylight
- Period of daylight
- Variation in local mean time with changes in latitude and longitude
7.3 Charts and Publications
From the list below, select the chart(s)/document(s) which contain Learnrmation about a given item of operational significance:
- ERC Low VTC PCA AIP ERSA.
Extract, decode symbols and apply Learnrmation displayed on a ERC Low and PCA.
Interpret topographic detail and decode symbols displayed on a WAC and VTC.
On a WAC, ERC Low, VTC:
- Measure rhumb line track
- Measure distance using chart and latitude scale
- Plot a position given
- latitude & longitude
- bearing & distance
Apply magnetic variation to obtain magnetic direction.
Have a basic understanding of the theory of map projections and:
- Identify the following properties of a Lamberts Conformal, Mercator, and Transverse Mercator:
- appearance of rhumb lines, great circles
- distortion of shapes & areas
- scale variation; and
- Describe the methods of representing scale.
Understand the basic principles of circular slide rule including the scales and graduations and the importance of rough estimates to determine the correct value of the answer e.g. whether the answer is 0.7; 7; 70; or 700:
- Carry out conversions between
- Determine head/tail, and x-wind components given W/V and HDG
- GS, distance, fuel used, fuel required, fuel remaining and fuel consumption problems, given appropriate combinations of these factors
- CAS/TAS problems given air temp & pressure height
- HDG, GS and drift given TAS, W/V, TR
- TR given HDG, TAS, W/V
- Problems relating to rates/gradients of climb and descent
- TOPC and TOPD position using average airspeed, W/V and rates of climb/descent.
7.5 Pilot Navigation
Principles of map reading:
- Describe the method of chart orientation
- List situations when a pilot should read
- from map to ground
- from ground to map
- Select appropriate position lines to assist in determining:
- ground speed
- track error
- a fix
- Select appropriate ground features to establish position when flying:
- at low level (500 ft AGL)
- between (approximately) 2000 and 10,000ft AGL
- over mountainous terrain, coastal areas, densely populated and sparsely populated areas
With reference to a planned or given track and at least fixes or position lines on a WAC:
- Determine track made good (TMG)
- Calculate drift
- Determine alteration of heading or HDG(M) to:
- parallel track
- intercept track at a nominated point
- maintain track once track is intercepted
- Revise/confirm estimates or ETA using latest ground speed or time/distance proportion
- Establish a DR position using latest TR & GS
- Mentally apply the one in sixty rule
- Mentally revise estimates and ETAs and
- Estimate TR and ETI to a selected diversion point.
Monitor flight progress by maintaining an in-flight navigation log.
Monitor fuel consumption and revise fuel reserves.
Plan in-flight diversions:
- Around adverse weather
- To a suitable aerodrome
7.6 Radio Navigation Aids
Describe how to identify an aid and state the frequency of a nominated NDB or VOR.
Extract NDB and VOR Learnrmation from ERSA and ERC Low and state the rated coverage of a VOR up to 10,000 ft.
State the effect (in Australia) of the following errors on the reliability of ADF cockpit indications:
- Co-channel interference
- Mountain effect
- Effect of thunderstorms
- Coastal refraction
Explain why Learnrmation pertaining to broadcasting stations is included in ERSA.
Recall the "aggregate" error of a VOR and explain what is meant by "scalloping".
Establish a position line given:
- HDG & ADF data
- VOR indications
Describe how to use the VOR to determine TR to or from a station.
Describe how to use an ADF or VOR to home to a station, and recognise instrument indications which signify station passage.
Note: CPL students are expected to apply drift when tracking inbound to an NDB.
Establish fixes and use these fixes to make off track corrections using a DME distance and use these fixes to make off track corrections:
- HDG & ADF data or
- VOR indications