Table of Contents.

9.1 to 9.3 Local Weather

9.1 Learn Quiz

Demonstrate a basic knowledge of local weather and describe how these phenomena may affect the safe operation of an aircraft. In particular the likely occurrence of;

  • thunderstorms
  • low cloud
  • poor visibility
  • turbulence
9.2 Learn Quiz

Demonstrate an understanding of weather forecasts, reports and broadcasts which are pertinent to the area of operation.

9.3 Learn Quiz

Recognise signs and describe the effect of these phenomena on flight characteristics which may indicate the presence of;

Note: “Signs” means forecast conditions and pilot observations.

  1. Turbulence, thermals, dust devils
  2. Wind gradient, wind shear

9.4 to 9.5 Composition of the Atmosphere

9.4 Learn Quiz

Know the vertical divisions of the atmosphere viz;

  1. Troposphere
  2. Tropopause
  3. Stratosphere
  4. Most weather effects occur below the stratosphere
9.5 Learn Quiz

In the standard atmosphere, recall;

  1. Sea level temperature and pressure
  2. Temperature and pressure lapse rates in the troposphere

9.6 to 9.9 Temperature, Pressure and Humidity

9.6 Learn Quiz

Know the means of measurement of surface air temperature, and that actual local temperatures may differ e.g. higher immediately above a runway;

9.7 Learn Quiz

Know the meaning of the terms;

  1. isotherm, temperature inversions
  2. Radiation, advection, convection, conduction
  3. Isobar, horizontal pressure gradient
  4. Saturated air, relative humidity, dew point
  5. Evaporation, condensation, freezing
9.8 Learn Quiz

List the effects of changes in temperature, pressure and humidity on air density.

9.9 Learn Quiz

List the factors which influence the diurnal variation of surface air temperature and explain the temperature gradient between land and sea surfaces.

9.10 to 9.11 Atmospheric Stability

9.10 Learn Quiz

Differentiate between stable, unstable and conditionally stable and unstable atmospheric conditions.

9.11 Learn Quiz

Understand the adiabatic processes and the parcel method of assessing stability.

9.12 to 9.17 Clouds and Precipitation

9.12 Learn Quiz

Identify and “classify” cloud “types”. Classifications required are;

  1. High, medium, low
  2. Cumuloform, Stratoform (Examples of cloud types are Cu, Ci etc.)

Note 1: At the PPL level a basic understanding may be necessary to meet the requirements of item 9.27(j)

9.13 Learn Quiz

Identify cloud types and know the standard abbreviation for each cloud type, where applicable;

  1. Cirrus
  2. Cirrocumulus
  3. Cirrostratus
  4. Altocumulus
  5. Altostratus
  6. Nimbostratus
  7. Stratocumulus
  8. Stratus
  9. Cumulus
  10. Cumulonimbus
  11. Lenticular and rota clouds
9.14 Learn Quiz

Know the method of reporting cloud coverage.

9.15 Learn Quiz

Describe the weather associated with each cloud type.

9.16 Learn Quiz

Differentiate between drizzle, rain, showers and virga.
(A general description will be sufficient i.e., actual droplet size is NOT required.)

9.17 Learn Quiz

Select statements which describe the conditions necessary for the formation/dispersal of various types of cloud.

9.18 to 9.21 Visibility

9.18 Learn Quiz

Know the method used in meteorological forecasts and reports to describe visibility;

9.19 Learn Quiz

Describe the term “Runway Visual Range”.

9.20 Learn Quiz

Give reasons for differences between “in-flight” and “reported” visibility.

9.21 Learn Quiz

List the meteorological factors which will reduce in-flight visibility.

9.22 to 9.25 Winds - General

9.22 Learn Quiz

Describe the relationship between pressure and wind and apply Buys Ballot’s law to assess the approximate location of high and low pressure systems.

9.23 Learn Quiz

Differentiate between:

  1. Squalls and gusts
  2. Backing and veering
9.24 Learn Quiz

Compare surface and gradient winds in terms of direction and strength.

9.25 Learn Quiz

List the “factors” which affect the diurnal variation of wind and describe typical “variations” in surface wind strength during a 24 hour period.

9.26 Airmasses and Fronts

9.26 Learn Quiz

Describe typical “flying weather” associated with;

  1. Cold fronts
  2. Warm fronts
  3. Wave depressions
  4. Occluded fronts
  5. Tropical cyclones
  6. The equatorial trough

Note: The term ‘flying weather’ embraces;

  • temperature (warm/cooler)
  • wind changes (back/veer, stronger/weaker)
  • stability and turbulence
  • cloud type(s) and approximate amount(s), precipitation.

9.27 Flight Considerations

With respect to the phenomena listed below;

  • state the conditions favourable to their development and, where applicable, their dispersal
  • recognise signs which may indicate their presence
  • describe their affect on flight condition
  • where applicable, state the pilot actions required to minimise their affect on an aircraft in flight
  1. Thermals, turbulence
  2. Dust devils and dust storms
  3. Wind gradient, wind shear and low level jet streams
  4. Anabatic and katabatic winds
  5. Mountain waves and fohn winds
  6. Land and sea breezes
  7. Inversions and fog
  8. Thunderstorms and microburst
  9. Downdrafts associated with terrain/cloud
  10. Atmospheric stability and instability
  11. Hoar frost, rime and clear airframe ice

9.28 to 9.29 Synoptic Meteorology

9.28 Learn Quiz

Given a Mean Sea level analysis chart, identify;

  1. High and low pressure systems
  2. A trough, a ridge, a col
  3. Wind gradient, wind shear and low level jet streams
  4. Warm, cold and occluded fronts
  5. A tropical cyclone
9.29 Learn Quiz

Describe typical weather characteristics associated with the items listed in sub-paras 9.28 (a) and (b);
Items (c) and (d) are covered in 9.26.
The term “weather characteristics” embraces;

  1. Approximate wind direction
  2. Moisture content (dry/humid)
  3. Cloud (stratoform or cumuloform)
  4. Clear skies
  5. Turbulent or smooth air
  6. Good or poor visibility

9.30 to 9.36 Weather Services

9.30 Learn Quiz

For given locations, extract from AIP the availability of aviation forecasts, meteorological reports and weather briefing, and state the method of obtaining this information.

9.31 Learn Quiz

State/select the conditions under which it is mandatory to obtain a forecast.

9.32 Learn Quiz

With reference to AIP extract, decode and apply information contained in;

  1. ARFOR
  2. TAF
  3. METAR
  4. SPECI

“Decode” means ability to;

  • decide whether a particular forecast is valid for a flight, and
  • interpret any coded information into plain language.
9.33 Learn Quiz

Given a typical weather briefing, evaluate weather information applicable to a flight;

  1. Assessing likely changes in weather during the flight
  2. List those phenomena which could adversely affect the flight “Weather” is defined in sub-para 9.29 and includes “fine weather”
9.34 Learn Quiz

List the conditions which require a pilot to submit a short AIREP.

9.35 Learn Quiz

State the purpose of VOLMET, AERIS and ATIS broadcasts and indicate how this information is obtained.

9.36 Learn

State what is meant by a TAT or TAST service. (Meteorological Terms Discontinued)

9.37 Climatology

9.37 Learn Quiz

Describe typical seasonal weather conditions in different regions of Australia with reference to;

  1. Visibility (good/poor)
  2. Prevailing winds
  3. Typical cloud patterns and precipitation
  4. Seasonal pressure and frontal systems - including the ITCZ and equatorial trough.